India is the land of great ascetics and sages who had given in abundance to people of India and the world, be it values, the way of better living, holy scriptures or the inventions they did long ago that we use in today’s era but are unaware of their inventors. One of those inventions is surgery which was discovered more than 4000 years ago and was conducted by Maharishi Sushruta, a great Indian sage more than 2600 years ago. He is known as the founding father of surgery. He had conducted various complex surgeries such as caesareans, artificial limbs, cataract, urinary stones, fractures, and plastic surgery that is considered extremely complicated now a days. He described all about surgeries in a book named “Shalya Tantra” which was later renamed as “Sushruta Samhita”. Maharishi Sushruta is known to have compiled the knowledge and teachings of his guru Divodasa Dhanvantari. The Sushruta Samhita consists of 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, details about 700 medicinal plants. It also describes over 300 surgical procedures, 120 surgical instruments and classifies human surgery in 8 categories. All ayurvedic practitioners refer to Sushruta Samhita.
Various accidental injuries comprising almost all parts of the body are described by him as
- Chinna – Complete severance of a part or whole of a limb
- Bhinna – Deep injury to some hollow region by a long piercing object
- Viddha prana – Puncturing a structure without a hollow
- Kshata – Uneven injuries with signs of both chinna and bhinna
- Pichchita – Crushed injury due to a fall or blow
- Ghrsta – Superficial abrasion of the skin